Sunday, May 24, 2020
Reno 1 Emily Reno Parris A4 5.13.17 A Feigned Madness Until something very tragic happens, one will never truly know how they would respond to such an event. Shakespeare s play Hamlet focuses on the concept of grief and the incredible power it has to change the way a person acts. After the death of his father, HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s character is often thought to have entered a state of madness; however, many fail to see that Hamlet has feigned this madness to seek revenge on those who have wronged his father and as a way to cope with his overwhelming sadness. The actions Hamlet takes and the persona that he presents adds an additional layer to his character and proves that he is quite intelligent in his methods and able to use theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦(1.5.170-180) Reno 3 Hamlet explains to the men that he may begin to act weird and that from there on out he must put on an Ã¢â¬Å"antic dispositionÃ¢â¬ and that they must swear to never speak of the information that they know. We see that Hamlet is very calm in this instance and clearly able to communicate what he wants, something a madman would not be able to do. Although he has not completely thought out his plan to kill Claudius, he knows that he must have something to put the blame on once he does and decides that acting mad gives him the perfect excuse. Despite the grief he is undergoing, Hamlet is still able to think through his actions, showing how aware, able and sane he really is. In addition to Hamlet admitting he will fake his madness, when he begins to act out it becomes clear that other characters may not fully believe it is real. Hamlet s mother admits that there may be an obvious reason for his behavior, saying, Ã¢â¬Å"I doubt it is no other but the main:/His fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s death and our o erhasty marriageÃ¢â¬ (2.2.56-57). HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s mother realizes that the death of her husband and her quick marriage to HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s uncle may be the source of his Ã¢â¬Å"madnessÃ¢â¬ and suggests that he will soon overcome these emotional struggles andShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of Shakespeare s Hamlet 959 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesnot to Ã¢â¬Å"xÃ¢â¬ (An analysis of Hamlet s Soliloquy To Be or Not to Be) There are many outstanding stories that have been written by the one and only William Shakespeare, in which a soliloquy of a character is very compelling. The play Hamlet by William Shakespeare is a story in which a man kills his own brother and then marries the wife of his brother and takes the throne while he is at it. There are many secrets and no one knows that the original king was killed by his brother. Hamlet is then told byRead MoreAnalysis Of Shakespeare s Hamlet 1061 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesKylie Kwiatt Jaime Jordan Reading Shakespeare October 29, 2014 Hamlet through Feminist Lens In the play Hamlet by William Shakespeare, the character of Ophelia may be looked at and analyzed through a Feminist perspective. By using a Feminist lens, readers may observe the impact of patriarchal society and misogyny on the mind of a young lady doing her best to fit into the role of a Shakespearian-era woman. Women were expected to be virginal, yet sexual, subservient and inferior to men, and possessionsRead MoreAnalysis Of Shakespeare s Hamlet 1021 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Ochoa1 Daniela Ochoa English Mrs. Levine 19 April 2016 WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Roles in Hamlet Ã¢â¬Å"ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s a remarkable amount of sexism on TV. When male characters are flawed, theyÃ¢â¬â¢re interesting, deep and complex, but when women characters are flawed, theyÃ¢â¬â¢re just a mess.Ã¢â¬ Ellen Pompeo. In Ã¢â¬Å"HamletÃ¢â¬ Ophelia and Gertrude are the only females mentioned throughout the ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s tragic play. The two women are unappreciated and are consideredRead MoreAnalysis Of Shakespeare s Hamlet 886 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesthe thingÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (Hamlet 2.2 .581) The meta-theatrical play The Mousetrap is central to Hamlet. The play-within-a play is a catalyst to the plot and works to illuminate character. This essay will argue that the scene places Hamlet into the role of a playwright who employs theatrical conventions in order to manipulate his audience rather than entertain. Hamlet transforms The Mousetrap play into an accusatory analogy of King Claudius. This scene also largely contrasts the playwright Shakespeare to HamletÃ¢â¬â¢sRead MoreAnalysis Of Shakespeare s Hamlet 1650 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Duplication and repetition in Hamlet create an effect in which the core foundations of the play are reiterated and given greater attention as to resonate with the audience. Each of these duplications are binary oppositions that showcase a similar situation with opposite processes or results-- ultimately the majority of these duplications are reverberations of death in scenes that show Hamlet trying to be a hero but ending up being a villain. There are two actions in the play that are duplicatedRead MoreAnalysis Of Shakespeare s Hamlet 1282 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesDuring this part of Hamlet, the King has just witnessed HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s play and concluded that his murderous actions are no longer a secret. Now that there are possible consequences, King Claudius feels regret for his actions and wants to be forgiven. However, he still wants to keep his prizes of being king and marrying the queen, therefore he tries to pray to be forgiven and later on devises a plan to get rid of Hamlet. James Burgh wrote the elocution manual The Art of Speaking to inform the youth ofRead MoreAnalysis Of Shakespeare s Hamlet 1406 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAs one of the most famous and world-renowned works, Hamlet has been remade countless of times both on stage and on screen. In 2009 a modernized rendition of the brilliant play starring David Tennant as the Prince of Denmark, with Patrick Stewart as Claudius, and Penny Downie as Gertrude was rel eased to the big screen. Set in early modern times, the clothes of this movie may have been updated, however the language remained loyal to the original text. With the significant length of this interpretationRead MoreAnalysis Of Shakespeare s Hamlet 1278 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesHamlet Ã¢â¬Å"To be or not to be, that is the questionÃ¢â¬ Winner of four Academy Awards, including Best Picture and Best Actor, Laurence Olivier states in his famous redemption of William ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Hamlet, where Laurence Oliver played as Hamlet. Characters Laurence Olivier- Prince Hamlet Eileen Herlie Ã¢â¬â Queen Gertrude Basil Sydney- King Claudius (current king of Denmark) Jean Simmons- Ophelia (PoloniusÃ¢â¬â¢s Daughter) Norman Wooland Ã¢â¬âHoratio (HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s friend) Felix Aylmer -Polonius John Laurie Ã¢â¬âFranciscoRead MoreAnalysis Of Shakespeare s Hamlet 1609 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesechoes and expounds upon the famous Ã¢â¬Å"To be, or not to beÃ¢â¬ (Hamlet 3.1.56). The former quote was written by none other than Danish philosopher and poet, SÃ ¸ren Kierkegaard. Born in 1813, SÃ ¸ren Kierkegaard was well acquainted with ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s text and often referred to it in his writings. When watching Kenneth BranaghÃ¢â¬â¢s unique, unabridged adaptation of Hamlet, it is apparent that Kenneth Branagh was able to capture how similar his Hamlet and SÃ ¸ren are in character while making his mark in cinematographyRead MoreAnalysis Of Shakespeare s Hamlet 844 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesplay they always put their own spin on the original piece. When Kenneth Branagh and Gregory Doran both made films on Hamlet the presentation of the movies were different. All directors have a style to the way they film; Branagh and Doran both have different filming styles that portray Ha mlet in a different light. In Branagh version of Hamlet he places the movie in Denmark and has Hamlet being the prince of Denmark just like the play does. Adversely Doran places his film in the modern world straying
Wednesday, May 13, 2020
The role of Assessment in Education System Education is the most important aspect in peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives. In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society, education is essential in order to be successful economically and socially. Ã¢â¬ËDurkheim believes that education enables children to internalize the social rules that contribute to the functioning of the societyÃ¢â¬â¢ (Giddens, A., 2006, p.686). He also claimed that education should be under the control of the state, free from special interest groups. Other than this, Ã¢â¬ËKarl Marx, the father of the conflict theory, believed that education system perpetuates the existing class structureÃ¢â¬ ¦to prepare children for their roles in the capitalist, technological society, controlled by the dominant groups in societyÃ¢â¬â¢ (Ballantine, J.,Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦According to the National Curriculum of the Maldives, Ã¢â¬Ëthe purpose of classroom assessment is to empower both teachers and their students to improve the quality of learning in the classroomÃ¢â¬â¢ (Cited in EDC website, p.98). Assessment should tell the educators and individual learners something that they already know stretching learners to the limits of their understanding and ability to apply their knowledge. There are various methods and strategies that are used in order to find out what the students already know and to connect them with what is to be taught. In order to obtain students prior knowledge and understanding, teachers administer assessment techniques to collect information about what and how much their students are learning. Assessment in schools can be classified into diagnostic, formative and summative strands. Diagnostic assessments are used to provide educators with information about studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ prior knowledge, skills, attitudes, learning styles and motivation to assist them to develop an effective learning programme that suits the educational needs of the learners. After diagnostic test summative and formative assessments are used to evaluate studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ learning. Summative test typically comes at the end of course or unit of instruction. It is designed to determine the extentShow MoreRelatedRole of Education1845 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesINTRODUCTION IMPORTANCE OF EDUCATION Generally, at the start of a very young age, children learn to develop and use their mental, moral and physical powers, which they acquire through various types of education. Education is commonly referred to as the process of learning and obtaining knowledge at school, in a form of formal education. However, the process of education does not only start when a child first attends school. Education begins at home. One does not only acquire knowledge from a teacher;Read MoreThe Role Of Education Policy1083 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagespreviously, education policy making plays a vital role in education planning, and in the long run, improve the education application (Haddad, Demsky, 1995). The role of education policy making in the increased changing world provides undeniable reason of why educational leaders need a concrete knowledge of policy making procedures, instead of leaving the role to policy makers only (Rosekrans, 2006; Ben-Peretz, 2009). According to Fowler (2012), education leader sÃ¢â¬â¢ hold the notion that education and politicsRead MoreIs Education A Essential Role?986 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesEducation plays a vital role in many steps toward many goals that I want to achieve. In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s age itÃ¢â¬â¢s becoming more important to get a higher education such as a masterÃ¢â¬â¢s degree that helps people like myself reach their highest potential in life and the success that we all want as a society and culture. The economy has propelled this type of education as a nesousary tool in order for people to get a job this expectably important on the federal levels that deals with Law enforcement. HoweverRead MoreThe Role of Technology in Education730 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesIntroduction Over time, many have questioned the role of technology in education and instructional teaching because technology in education is a developing field that many researchers are yet to venture into. Since its advent, technology has greatly transformed human life because it has widened the focus within which man operates because of making his efforts easier and attainable. Introducing technology in the education sector has been viewed as a move towards progress because it hasRead MoreRole of Ict in Education790 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesRole of ICT in education Nowadays the role of Information and Communication Technology (ICT),especially internet in the education sector plays an important role, especially in the process of empowering the technology into the educational activities. Education sector can be the most effective sector to anticipate and eliminate the negative impact of ICT. Technology (internet) in another side can be the most effective way to increase the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s knowledge. Being aware of the significant roleRead MoreEducation Assistants Role in Education Essay1556 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesSignificant reforms have been made to the education system due to the demands of a fast changing and increasingly competitive global economy. The need to provide quality education that maximizes the potential of every child and raise standards of pupil performance has increased the demand for education assistants and broadened the range of responsibilities they perform. In the past, an education assistantÃ¢â¬â¢s role involved preparing materials for the classroom, childcare and pastoral care. HoweverRead MoreRole of education in society3291 Words Ã |Ã 14 PagesEvaluate the Role of Education in Society. Consider Issue of Gender in Your Response. Also, Consider How Such Factors May Impact on a PersonÃ¢â¬â¢s Life Chances. Essay: Evaluate the role of education in society. Consider issue of gender in your response. Also, consider how such factors may impact on a personÃ¢â¬â¢s life chances. This essay will examine the role of education in society and an analysis of inequality in relation to Gender. It will discuss briefly education and examine the different theoreticalRead MoreRole of Computers in Education2854 Words Ã |Ã 12 PagesÃ Role of Computers in Education Computers have changed the way we work, be it any profession. Therefore, it is only but natural the role of computers ineducation has been given a lot of prominence in the recent years. Computers play a vital role in every field. They aid industrialÃ processes; they find applications in medicine; they are the heart of the software industry; they play a vital role in education. Theuses of computers in education are manifold. Here, we shall discuss the important facetsRead MoreThe Evolving Role of Government in Education965 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesRunning head: THE EVOLVING ROLE OF GOVERMRNT IN EDUCATION The Evolving Role of Government in Education Latoya T Bond The Evolving Role of Government in Education Most school age children in the United States receive their education through the public school system. There are several components that must come together in unison in order for the US public schools to operate at maximum potential. Strong arguments can be made as to which of the components are most important. Many peopleRead MoreThe Role of Ict in Education Sector699 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesTHE ROLE OF ICT IN EDUCATION SECTOR Nowadays the role ofÃ Information and Communication Technology (ICT), especially internetÃ in theÃ education sector plays an important role, especially in the process ofÃ empowering the technology into the educational activities. Education sector can be the most effective sector to anticipate and eliminate the negative impact of ICT. Technology (internet) in another side can be the most effective way to increase the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s knowledge. Being aware of the significant
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
MOTHER TERESA In my English assignment, I was asked to do a report on someone or things that I am interested with. So, I decided to choose Mother Teresa as my role model to accomplish my task. To me, a role model is someone you want to emulate or hope to be like one day. We will write a custom essay sample on Mother Teresa or any similar topic only for you Order Now Besides that, a role model is also someone who has inspiring actions or words. However, I feel that a role model needs to be honest, kind-hearted, humble, and caring. Therefore, I choose Mother Teresa as my role model because she had many great qualities that made her an inspiration in my life. Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu was born on the 26th August 1910 in Skopje. It is the current capital of Republic of Macedonia which was part of the Ottoman Empire at the time of her birth. She was baptized on 27th of August 1910 and receives her First Holy Communion at the age of five and a half. She was the youngest among her three siblings, they were Aga, her older sister; and Laza her brother. Her parents were Nikola and Drane Bojaxhiu. Their families were a completely religious Roman Catholics. Her father was a well-respected local businessman and her mother was a housewife. Nevertheless, her father was active in politics as part of the Skopje council members and owned few houses. Not long after, her father died and it was being believed that he died because he was poisoned by his political enemies. Under those circumstances, her familyÃ¢â¬â¢s lifestyle changed completely and her mother had to work to raise the family. Agnes learned about being a charitable person from her parents. They did not neglect those who were in need in terms of financial or materials needs. Then, her religious faith was further strengthened when she actively involved herself with the activities that were conducted by the Church of Sacred Heart (Kurdasy 2009). At the age of twelve years old, she decided to become a nun. As time went by, and turned eighteen, she made a decision to leave her home in September 1928 to live with the Institute of the Blessed Virgin Mary which was known as the Sisters of Loreto at Ireland because of her desire to become a missionary. Agnes is a person that was willing to learn and was brave in accepting a new environment. In Ireland, she had to speak English, so she learned it and after a month, she brought the language back to India and established an education centre, St. MaryÃ¢â¬â¢s high school in Calcutta for seventeen years as a teacher and principal. Not long after that, she accepted her vows as Sister Mary Teresa as she took the name of the patron saint of the missionaries, St. Therese of Lisieux. Sister Mary Teresa made her Final Profession of Vows on 24th May 1937 and after she said she was the Ã¢â¬Å"spouse of JesusÃ¢â¬ for Ã¢â¬Å"all eternityÃ¢â¬ , she was called as Mother Teresa (Langford 2008) Mother Teresa announced her mission to help the poorest of the poor while living with them as she discovered her calling from Jesus when she was on her way to an annual retreat on 10th September 1946. It all happened when she was on the train. She believed that if she did not obey what God had told her, it meant that she had to break the faith. She was given the permission to leave the Loreto Order of Nuns after a year but she did not leave until 16th August 1948. People were able to identify with her simple clothing that she wore every day; that is a simple cotton sari with blue borders. She went to cities wearing that outfit. It is a hard decision full of sacrifices that she made, for she had to leave her friends and companions just to do GodÃ¢â¬â¢s will all by herself with the strength and guidance from God. But she did not realize that the organization of Loreto Order of Nuns would adopt her outfit has their habit (Mandela 2013). The most interesting part about Mother Teresa is that before she started her mission, she learned a lot of medical skills from the Medical Missionary Sisters. After three months, she was set out to help the poor in Calcutta because of her caring heart towards others. When she reached Calcutta, she communicated with Father Van Exem to assist her in finding a place to stay. Mother Teresa stayed at St. JosephÃ¢â¬â¢s home. She received a warm welcomed from the Little Sisters of the Poor and they approached her to follow them to help the elderly at the beginning of her mission after she left Loreto Orders of Nuns (2009). Not only that, she started her mission without any financial aids. Mother Teresa did not have any money but gave her attention and energy to the poor. Even though it was tiring, she did not stop because of her love and compassion towards God and people. She helped those people that no one dared to get close to such as the lepers and the dying. Every night she would want to get back to her easy life at Loreto but then she prayed to God to help er to go through it all. Mother Teresa never stopped praying to God to ask for assistance and wisdom as she knew that without GodÃ¢â¬â¢s help, she cannot endured the suffering of helping the poor (Mandela 2013). Besides that, Mother Teresa helped incalculable poor and homeless people. She always thought to herself that there were many in need. Sh e cared about her health and she was so devoted to help and care for those who are in need as she sees Jesus in every person. As it was stated in The Good News Bible of Genesis 1:26-27, Ã¢â¬Å"for we were created by God through his own imageÃ¢â¬ (p2). She was called to establish Ã¢â¬ËhelpÃ¢â¬â¢ to reach out to the poor. Through her duty of helping others, she received high financial aids from a wealthy people such as the Kennedy family and even from the Pope Paul VI by using the money of the church to help her in conducting her mission. Not only that, she also receive a lot of awards such as Pope John XXIII Peace Prize, Joseph P. Kennedy Foundation Award, Templeton Prize for Progress in Religion; Presidential Medal of Freedom and Noble Peace Prize (2009). Mother Teresa did not care what other people will think or say. She was criticized by a lot of people for wasting all the money for the dead and the dying. But it never stops her as she loved towards the poor, the dying and the victims of leprosy. Mother Teresa was motivated to seek medical treatment for all of them. However, in order to provide it for them, the nuns of her organization set up clinics so that people are able to receive medical care and treatment. Soon after that, the sisters opened up a rehabilitation clinic for lepers. They established of over forty acres of land at Town of Peace meant for the lepers (2009). Through her compassionate heart, it actually taught me to be more compassion with others when I receive any rejection or criticism from other people. In conclusion, Mother Teresa was a person that was admired; loved and respected by the world. Her entire life was she dedicated it to God to use her to serve the poorest of the poor as a sign JesusÃ¢â¬â¢s love through her actions, deeds and words. She was a type of person that made a great impact in my life and made people look at the world differently. The world is filled with good people, people that donate billions of dollars, those who dares to raise their voice or opinion to make changes, but then; Mother Teresa stands out in the crowd with bravery as she was a very unique person with the help of God. Mother Teresa said this, Ã¢â¬Å"let us touch the dying, the poor, the lonely and the unwanted according to the graces we have received and let us not be ashamed or slow to do the humble workÃ¢â¬ (Teresa). To sum up, Mother Teresa taught me to have a pure heart and love others just as I love myself. Her actions and kindness had actually opened my eyes, she said that Ã¢â¬Å"not all of us can do great things, but we can do small things with great loveÃ¢â¬ (2009) and that is the reason I chose Mother Teresa as my role model in life. References Ã¢â¬Å"Essay on Mother TeresaÃ¢â¬ (blog), Mac 4, 2009, http://www. customwritings. om/blog/sample-essays/essay-mother-teresa. html, accessed January 2013. Good News Bible, 2nd Edition (Manila: Philippine Bible Society, 1992), p. 2. John Langford, Mother TeresaÃ¢â¬â¢s Secret Fire: That Changed Her Life, and How It can Transform Your Own (2008), PDF e-book, [p20], [http://books. google. com. my/books? id=20jT6DZziQsCpg=PA9dq=where+can+i+fi nd+a+book+about+mother+teresa+lifehl=ensa=Xei=MB31UIHcJ42hlQWSsoHADgved=0CEAQ6AEwAg#v=twopageq=where%20can%20i%20find%20a%20book%20about%20mother%20teresa%20lifef=false], accessed January 2013. Mother Teresa of Calcutta quotesÃ¢â¬ , 2013, http://thinkexist. com/quotation/let_us_touch_the_dying-the_poor-the_lonely_and/216343. html, accessed January 2013. ( cek balik) Nelson Mandela, Ã¢â¬Å"Mother Teresa BiographyÃ¢â¬ , 2013, http://www. biography. com/people/mother-teresa-9504160, accessed January 2013. Robin Nelson, Mother Teresa: A Life of Caring (Minneapolis: Lener Publication Company, 2007), PDF e-book, [pp1-3], How to cite Mother Teresa, Papers Mother Teresa Free Essays string(18) " have to live in\." Ã¢â¬Å"Love is repaid by love alone.Ã¢â¬ Mother Teresa first read these words when she was eighteen years old while on her way to Ireland to become a nun. Sixty-nine years later before her death she must have realized that she was one of the most loved women in the world. We will write a custom essay sample on Mother Teresa or any similar topic only for you Order Now If the Saint TeresaÃ¢â¬â¢s phrase has any literal meaning, there is possibly no one in our age who has deserved so much love in return as Mother Teresa. Anyone who has heard her story can attest to her greatness. This was a woman who felt being a devout nun, just wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t enough. She gave up her Sisters of Loreto robe for the blue and white sari of the poor, to aid and live among the destitute of Calcutta. Upon taking a vow of poverty, purity and obedience to start her new order, she told herself, Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢ll teach myself to beg no matter how much abuse and humiliation I have to endureÃ¢â¬ in order to help others. Her unwavering devotion to this cause came from her belief that her work was nothing less than a direct order from God. Her Childhood Mother TeresaÃ¢â¬â¢s story begins in the small town of Skopje in Albania, Eastern Europe. She was born in Skopje on 27th August 1910 to a shopkeeper, Nikolle Bojaxhiu and his wife Drana. She was given the names Agnes Gonxha. The family always called her Gonxha, which means flower bud, because she was always plump and pink and cheerful. She was the youngest of three children, with a brother Lazar and sister Aga. They lived in a large house with a big garden. The Bojaxhiu family had a long tradition of success in crafts, fabric-dyeing and trade. Gonxhe was baptized in the Heart of Jesus Catholic Church and successfully completed elementary and high school years in church schools, where she was an active member of the drama section, the literary section, and the church chorus. Her parents were very caring and never turned away anyone who needed help. When Mother Teresa recalled her childhood she said Ã¢â¬ËWe were a united and very happy family.Ã¢â¬â¢ Her greatest joy as a child came during church masses where she could sing, read and pray. Agnes attended mass every day, prayed and said the rosary every night. When Agnes was eight years old her father died. Her mother worked very hard to make sure the children were happy and Mother Teresa remembered her childhood as being Ã¢â¬Ëexceptionally happy.Ã¢â¬â¢ AgnesÃ¢â¬â¢ mother continued to help others in need, seemingly unaware of her own condition. She would take care of alcoholic women in their neighborhood and helped another widow with six children raise her family. When that widow died, those six children became a part of the Bojaxhiu family. By looking back on Mother TeresaÃ¢â¬â¢s childhood now we cannot help but understand the effects of her motherÃ¢â¬â¢s values, charity and devotion. She grew up surrounded by faith and compassion and at age twelve received her first Ã¢â¬Å"calling from GodÃ¢â¬ to help the poor. Upon hearing of this experience, her mother gave Agnes this advice, Ã¢â¬Å"Put your hands in His hands and walk all the way with Him.Ã¢â¬ Ã So at 12, she joined an Abbey, and at 18 she became a member of the Loreto Order of nuns. She trained in Dublin, where the motherhouse of the Loreto Sisters was. She chose the name of Sister Teresa, in memory of Saint ThÃ ©rÃ ¨se of Lisieux. In December 1928 she began her journey to India and continued to Darjeeling, at the base of the Himalayan Mountains, where she would continue her training towards her religious vows. Soon after, on January 6, 1929 she arrived in Calcutta, the capital of Bengal, India to teach at a school for girls. In Calcutta, she worked as a school aid, teacher and principal for a middle-class high school for Bengali girls. During these years she could not help but be touched by the poverty and misery in the streets and slums around her. She started actively going to hospitals and slums where she became more and more dissatisfied with the state of the people around her and the efforts to help them. On September 10, 1946, on the long train ride to Darjeeling where she was to go on a retreat and to recover from suspected tuberculosis, something happened. She had a life-changing encounter with the Living Presence of the Will of God. Mother Teresa recalls: Ã¢â¬Å"I realized that I had the call to take care of the sick and the dying, the hungry, the naked, the homeless Ã¢â¬â to be GodÃ¢â¬â¢s Love in action to the poorest of the poor. That was the beginning of the Missionaries of Charity.Ã¢â¬ Read alsoÃ Summary : Love Is Never Silent She didnÃ¢â¬â¢t hesitate, she didnÃ¢â¬â¢t question. She asked permission to leave the Loreto congregation and to establish a new order of sisters. While the church recommended she join the Daughters of Saint Anna, who worked with the poor, Sister Teresa felt this was not nearly adequate to the calling she had received. She didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to help the poor and retreat to a convent at night, but instead become one of the poor herself. She received that permission from Pope Pius XII. In 1948, at the age of 38, she exchanged her sisterÃ¢â¬â¢s robe for the uniform of CalcuttaÃ¢â¬â¢s poor and adopted a diet of rice and salt. The impoverished people of Calcutta were stunned by her presence among them. They could not understand why this European woman who spoke their language fluently would wash their babies, clean their wounds and educate their young. It was here in the streets of Calcutta where she was approached by one of her former students who made the remarkable request to join her. Mother Teresa was hesitant to invite someone else to take part in her calling because she wanted to make sure they understood the poverty that they would have to live in. You read "Mother Teresa" in category "Essay examples" Several weeks after Mother Teresa asked her former student to take time to think about it, the girl returned without any personal belongings or jewelry, wearing a sari, the uniform of the poor. She took Mother TeresaÃ¢â¬â¢s childhood name, Agnes as her own and became the first sister to join Mother TeresaÃ¢â¬â¢s calling. More sisters would join every month and by 1950, Sister Teresa had received approval from the Vatican to create another vow beyond her sisterÃ¢â¬â¢s vows of poverty, purity and obedience. The fourth addition was, Ã¢â¬Å"To devote oneself out of abnegation to the care of the poor and needy who, crushed by want and destitution, live in conditions unworthy of human dignity.Ã¢â¬ With this vow, the Missionaries of Charity were born and its members were commanded to seek out the poor, abandoned, sick, infirm and dying and Sister Teresa became Mother Teresa. She wrote in her diary at this time that, Ã¢â¬Å"If the rich people can have the full service and devotion of so many nuns and priests, surely the poorest of the poor and the lowest of the low can have the love and devotion of a fewÃ¢â¬âThe Slum Sister they call me, and I am glad to be just that for His love and glory.Ã¢â¬ In 1952 Mother Teresa and her Missionaries of Charity began the work for which they have been noted ever since. Her order received permission from Calcutta officials to use a portion of the abandoned temple to Kali, the Hindu goddess of transition and destroyer of demons. Mother Teresa founded here the Kalighat Home for the Dying, which she named Ã¢â¬Å"Nirmal HridayÃ¢â¬ (meaning Ã¢â¬Å"Pure HeartÃ¢â¬ ). She and her fellow nuns gathered dying Indians off the streets of Calcutta and brought them to this home to care for them during the days before they died. Mother TeresaÃ¢â¬â¢s first orphanage was started in 1953, while in 1957 she and her Missionaries of Charity began working with lepers. In the years following, her homes (she called them Ã¢â¬Å"tabernaclesÃ¢â¬ ) have been established in hundreds of locations in the world. The world came to know Mother Teresa after a 1969 BBC documentary on her work, which included footage of a potential miracle. Images of an area in the hospice too dark to show up on film appeared in a soft light after development. This public exposure led to growth of her order throughout India and later in the world. Soon after Cardinal Spellman from the United States visited her at the Motherhouse. Mother Teresa recalled, Ã¢â¬Å"He asked me where we lived. I told him, Ã¢â¬ËHere in this room, your Eminence. This is our refectory. We move the tables and benches to the side.Ã¢â¬â¢ He wanted to know where the rest of our convent was, where we could study. Ã¢â¬ËWe study here, too, your Eminence,Ã¢â¬â¢ I said. Then I added, Ã¢â¬ËAnd this is also our dormitory.Ã¢â¬â¢ When the Cardinal asked if we had a chapel, I brought him to the end of this room. Ã¢â¬ËIt is also our chapel, your EminenceÃ¢â¬â¢ I told himÃ¢â¬ ¦I donÃ¢â¬â¢t know what he was thinking, but he began to smile.Ã¢â¬ Mother Teresa made no exceptions to her dedication. When asked what she expected of a sister she said, Ã¢â¬Å"Let God radiate and live his life in her and through her in the slums. Let the sick and suffering find in her a real angel of comfort and consolation. Let her be a friend of the little children in the street. I would much rather they make mistakes in kindness than work miracles in unkindness.Ã¢â¬ Mother TeresaÃ¢â¬â¢s Wisdom Analyzing her deed and achievements, John Paul II asked: Ã¢â¬Å"Where did Mother Teresa find the strength to place herself completely at the service of others? She found it in prayer and in the silent contemplation of Jesus Christ, his Holy Face, his Sacred Heart.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I see God in every human being. When I wash the leperÃ¢â¬â¢s wounds, I feel I am nursing the Lord Himself. Is it not a beautiful experience?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"The poor give us much more than we give them. TheyÃ¢â¬â¢re such strong people, living day to day with no food. And they never curse, never complain. We donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to give them pity or sympathy. We have so much to learn from them. Ã¢â¬Å"There is a terrible hunger for love. We all experience that in our lives Ã¢â¬â the pain, the loneliness. We must have the courage to recognize it. The poor you may have right in your own family. Find them. Love them. Put your love for them in living action. For in loving them, you are loving God Himself.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"It is not how much we do, but how much love we put in the doing. It is not how much we give, but how much love we put in the giving.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"To God there is nothing small. The moment we have given it to God, it becomes infinite.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"You have to be holy in your position as you are, and I have to be holy in the position that God has put me. So it is nothing extraordinary to be holy. Holiness is not the luxury of the few. Holiness is a simple duty for you and for me. We have been created for that.Ã¢â¬ Her Achievements In 1965, by granting a Decree of Praise, Pope Paul VI granted Mother TeresaÃ¢â¬â¢s request to expand her order to other countries. TeresaÃ¢â¬â¢s order started to rapidly grow, with new homes opening all over the globe. The orderÃ¢â¬â¢s first house outside India was in Venezuela, and others followed in Rome and Tanzania, and eventually in many countries in Asia, Africa, and Europe, including Albania. In addition, the first Missionaries of Charity home in the United States was established in the South Bronx, New York. By 1996, she was operating 517 missions in more than 100 countries. Today over one million workers worldwide volunteer for the Missionaries of Charity. Mother Teresa traveled to help the hungry in Ethiopia, radiation victims at Chernobyl, and earthquake victims in Armenia. By the early 1970s, Mother Teresa had become known internationally. Her fame can be in large part attributed to the 1969 documentary Something Beautiful for God by Malcolm Muggeridge . In 1971 Paul VI awarded her the first Pope John XXIII Peace Prize. Other awards bestowed upon her included a Kennedy Prize (1971), the Balzan prize (1978) for humanity, peace and brotherhood among peoples, the Albert Schweitzer International Prize (1975), the United States Presidential Medal of Freedom (1985) and the Congressional Gold Medal (1994), honorary citizenship of the United States (November 16, 1996), and honorary degrees from a number of universities. In 1972 Mother Teresa was awarded the Nehru Prize for her promotion of international peace and understanding. In 1979, Mother Teresa was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, Ã¢â¬Å"for work undertaken in the struggle to overcome poverty and distress, which also constitute a threat to peace.Ã¢â¬ She refused the conventional ceremonial banquet given to laureates, and asked that the $6,000 funds be diverted to the poor in Calcutta, claiming the money would permit her to feed hundreds of needy for a year. In the same year, she was also awarded the Balzan Prize for promoting peace and brotherhood among the nations. At the time of her death, Mother TeresaÃ¢â¬â¢s Missionaries of Charity had over 4,000 sisters, an associated brotherhood of 300 members, and over 100,000 lay volunteers, operating 610 missions in 123 countries. These included hospices and homes for people with HIV/AIDS, leprosy and tuberculosis, soup kitchens, childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s and family counseling programs, orphanages, and schools. Mother Teresa was granted a full state funeral by the Indian Government, an honor normally given to presidents and prime ministers, in gratitude for her services to the poor of all religions in India. Her death was widely considered a great tragedy within both secular and religious communities. The former U.N. Secretary-General Javier PÃ ©rez de CuÃ ©llar, for example, said: Ã¢â¬Å"She is the United Nations. She is peace in the world.Ã¢â¬ Ã When she was asked Ã¢â¬Å"What can we do to promote world peace?Ã¢â¬ Her answer was simple: Ã¢â¬Å"Go home and love your family.Ã¢â¬ That was Blessed Teresa of Calcutta, Mother Teresa-our mother Teresa. How to cite Mother Teresa, Essay examples
Monday, May 4, 2020
Character Sketch of Chaucers Knight Essay Character Sketch of Chaucers KnightGeoffrey Chaucers Canterbury Tales, writtenin approximately 1385, is a collection of twenty-four stories ostensiblytold by various people who are going on a religious pilgrimage to CanterburyCathedral from London, England. Prior to the actual tales, however, Chauceroffers the reader a glimpse of fourteenth century life by way of what herefers to as a General Prologue. In this prologue, Chaucer introduces allof the characters who are involved in this imaginary journey and who willtell the tales. Among the characters included in this introductory sectionis a knight. Chaucer initially refers to the knight as a most distinguishedman (l. 43) and, indeed, his sketch of the knight is highly complimentary. The knight, Chaucer tells us, possessed/Finehorses, but he was not gaily dressed (ll. 69-70). Indeed, the knight isdressed in a common shirt which is stained where his armor had left mark(l. 72). That is, the knight is just home from service (l. 73) and isin such a hurry to go on his pilgrimage that he has not even paused beforebeginning it to change his clothes. The knight has had a very busy life ashis fighting career has taken him to a great many places. He has seen militaryservice in Egypt, Lithuania, Prussia, Russia, Spain, North Africa, andAsia Minor where he was of great value in all eyes (l. 63). Even thoughhe has had a very successful and busy career, he is extremely humble: Chaucermaintains that he is modest as a maid (l. 65). Moreover, he has neversaid a rude thing to anyone in his entire life (cf., ll. 66-7). Clearly,the knight possesses an outstanding character. Chaucer gives to the knight one of themore flattering descriptions in the General Prologue. The knight can dono wrong: he is an outstanding warrior who has fought for the true faith-accordingto Chaucer-on three continents. In the midst of all this contenton, however,the knight remains modest and polite. The knight is the embodiment of thechivalric code: he is devout and courteous off the battlefield and is boldand fearless on it. In twentieth century America, we wouldlike to think that we have many people in our society who are like Chaucersknight. During this nations altercation with Iraq in 1991, the conceptof the modest but effective soldier captured the imagination of the country. Indeed, the nations journalists in many ways attempted to make GeneralH. Norman Schwarzkof a latter day knight. The general was made to appearas a fearless leader who really was a regular guy under the uniform. It would be nice to think that a personsuch as the knight could exist in the twentieth century. The fact of thematter is that it is unlikely that people such as the knight existed evenin the fourteenth century. As he does with all of his characters, Chauceris producing a stereotype in creating the knight. As noted above, Chaucer,in describing the knight, is describing a chivalric ideal. The historyof the Middle Ages demonstrates that this ideal rarely was manifested inactual conduct. Nevertheless, in his description of the knight, Chaucershows the reader the possibility of the chivalric way of life.
Saturday, March 28, 2020
Advertising (Subliminal) Essays - Camel, Marketing, Free Essays Advertising (Subliminal) ENL 1 Modern advertising companies rely heavily on subliminal messaging to entice their target audiences. Advertisements are often crafted for the purpose of appealing to specific characteristics in the hopes of drawing the attention and appealing to the senses of prospective buyers. Tobacco companies have become notorious for the implementation of such techniques. The images portrayed in many of big tobaccos ads stimulate a variety of senses and emotions. One common tactic used by Camel cigarettes (a subsidiary of R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Co.) is to isolate and promote lifes pleasures, and American patriotism. A specific Camel ad found in Elle, a common, upscale womens magazine is a perfect example of such advertising. Pleasure To Burn is the slogan centered upon the advertisements page. Above the slogan, CAMEL is written, all letters in Camels trademark font. A beautiful orange sunset serves as a mesmerizing background to an attractive, young women relaxing and enjoying a cigarette on the back of a pristine classic car. The image is painted in the style of the early 50s pin-up doll image. Smoke lazily wafts up through the lettering from the cigarette positioned directly beneath the word Burn. The woman relaxes lazily, eyes closed, facing up towards the orange sunset. There is no question that she is blissfully enjoying her cigarette, and her surroundings. She is dressed in the uniform of a diner waitress, complete with hat, apron, and JANE stenciled upon her left breast patch. Rather than conjure the stereotypical images of young women on roller-skates rushing around busily serving patrons, the subject of this ad is very much relaxes, and very much alone. Rather than appear to be sexual, her short and tight uniform conveys a sense of sensuality as she reclines, comfortable, confident, and independent. The entire focus of the advertisement invites the viewer to partake in the clearly pleasurable experience of smoking a Camel cigarette, specifically to escape the bustling world around us. The sensual imagery further pushes the same lazy, comfortable, yet extremely pleasurable experience of smoking Camels. The ad clearly attempts to represent a truly American theme. The diner era reflected by the images is solely the historical product of the good ol US of A. The classic automobile, in mint condition, aquamarine coloring, and white hard-top set against the beautiful and unpolluted orange sky makes every effort to glorify the past, and to seemingly imply the universal and timeless appeal of Camel cigarettes. The red-haired waitress, in her classic uniform and white apron even sports a more classic American hairstyle, as well as proudly displaying JANE upon her breast patch. The name further seems to emphasize that Camels cigarettes are for everyone; every Jane could be like the waitress in the ad. Camels logo sporting the label underneath Since 1913 proundly invites thoughts of Camels longevity in America, truly solidifying its role as an American classic. The rebellious nature of the images is slightly more subtle but equally powerful in its impact. Upon close inspection, the waitress is wearing shiny new roller-blades rather than roller-skates. Her youthful figure also aids in the imagery of a somewhat rebellious and strong woman. As she smokes with such a sense of luxury and abandonment, one can notice her empty serving tray lying on the car beside her. In addition, she is still in uniform, all the way up to her pinstriped cap. One imagines that she is only on her break, or perhaps taking one without anyone noticing. The empty car implies that the vehicle is her own, and not that of a patron. She seems, despite her conformity in uniform and accoutrement, to be calling all the shots. The fact that not another single human being can be seen further implies that our female protagonist is in her own world, and needs no one. It is doubtful that this sense of singular independence would be lost among the subscribers of Elle magazine, most likely a strong female audience. The mixture of these images serves to provide a clean, packaged message with an almost aesthetic quality; Camel cigarettes are for the independent, hard-working woman who seeks pleasure and social freedom without necessitating any need or help from others. The ads appearance in the modern
Saturday, March 7, 2020
Pmp in Manufacturing Essay Example Pmp in Manufacturing Essay Pmp in Manufacturing Essay Executive Summary: This organisation manufactures and sells building automation, fire, and security system to existing customer and run the business through project concept. The company has being using the contract document to execute project without the proper use of project management plan or framework. In this scenario the contract document is prepare comprehensively with a scope, time and cost and this report is structure to critically analysis the project management plan and areas where the organisation can incorporate project management plan into the life cycle of its project. The nature of this project is a project venture where it fit the definition of a project the mapping of five processes and the nine knowledge areas during the duration of its life cycle. It also analyse the role of project manager that required to be all rounder (familiar with general management of business) in fulfil its stakeholders objectives. The organisation do not have a project management plan hence the discussion of this plan is concentrated to the best practice methodology how the project management is develop and where and what information is required for the development of project management plan base on the complexity of the project. The input, techniques and tool, and output methodology of project management institute (PMI), 2004, project management book of knowledge (PMBOK) is use in this discussion to discuss the development of project management plan. Audience of the project management plan is also critically being discuss to illustrate who is the audience, why this audience, what do the audience want from project management plan, how do they use the project management plan and how this project management plan is being presented and structured. Project management plan with the following knowledge areas of integration, scope, cost, time, quality, human resources, risk, and procurement and other model such as PRINCE 2 and ChapmanÃ¢â¬â¢s is also briefly discussed with comparison to PMBOK. The project management plan is a collection of information of its subsidiary plan and components. This subsidiary information is an input of the project management plan development and this input consist of four major segments. The preliminary statements define what need to be accomplished at the boundaries of the scope of the project followed by the project management process discussing all the nine areas of PMBOK of integration management, scope management, time management, cost management, quality management, human resources, communication management, risk management, and procurement management. The other two major segments of the input process of project management plan, address the enterprise environment factors and organisation process assets that surround and influence the success of the project. In the second categories of project plan development are the tools and techniques in collecting, monitoring, and controlling the four major input process of project management plan. These tools are the project management methodology, information system and expert judgement of the organisation assets and environmental. In conclusion and recommendation, this report discusses the benefits of the project management plan and the areas where the organisation can adapt and use project management plan in its executed project. Table of Contents : Executive Summary:vii Table of Contents:ix List of Figures and Tables:x 1. Introductions1 2. Background of project3 3. 1. Nature of venture4 3. 2. Nature and purpose of the chosen project management plan10 3. 3. Audience of project management plan14 3. 4. Structure of the project plan16 4. Contents of the Project Plan Sections18 4. . Develop inputs of PM Plan19 4. 1. 1Preliminary Project Scope Management19 4. 1. 2Project Management Processes20 4. 1. 2. 1Project Scope Management20 4. 1. 2. 2Project Time Management21 4. 1. 2. 3Project Cost Management22 4. 1. 2. 4Project Quality Management23 4. 1. 2. 5Project Human Resource Management23 4. 1. 2. 6Project Communications Management23 4. 1. 2. 7Project Risk Management24 4. 1. 2. 8Project Procurement Management24 4. 1. 3 Enterprise Environment Factors24 4. 1. 4Organizational Process Assets24 4. 2. Tools and Technique of PM Plan25 4. 2. Project Management Methodology25 4. 2. 2Project Management Information System25 4. 2. 3Expert Judgment25 4. 3. Output of a PM Plan25 5. Conclusions26 6. Recommendations27 Appendix 1: Subcontract agreement between customer and organisation (No PM Plan)28 Appendix 2: Assignment 1 of MGT802229 Appendix 3: How PRINCE 2 can compliment PMBOK and your PMP30 Appendix 4: A comparison of PRINCE 2 against PMBOK31 Appendix 5: PRINCE 2 Process Model32 List of References33 List of Figures and Tables: Figure 3. 1. 1: The five phases and 25 action steps of project management life cycle5 Figure 3. . 2: The project leaders direction finder6 Figure 3. 1. 3: Mapping of project management process to the project management process groups and knowledge areas7 Figure 3. 1. 4: Areas of expertise needed by the project team8 Figure 3. 1. 5: The project stakeholders8 Figure 3. 2. 1: Three major project documents and their relationship to their components10 Figure 3. 2. 2: Complexity-uncertainty relationships in projects12 Figure 3. 2. 3: Develop PM Plan Input, Tools Techniques and Outputs13 Table 3. 3. 1: Audience of PM Plan15 Table 3. 4. : PM Plan structures and its components17 Figure 4. 1: Develop PM Plan with its input, tools and technique and output process. 19 Figure 4. 2 : WBS sample structure21 Figure 4. 3 : Network Diagram21 1. Introductions As a supplier of building automation (BAS), fire security system (FAS) the organisation tenders and bids BAS and FAS system from retrofitting market (existing building for more than ten years). Upon winning the bid, an agreement between organisation and customer is sign. These contract document and this report is prepared for two purposes. Customer the sponsor, (Gardiner, 2005, p. 115) prepares the document to establishing requirements for the project in terms of project scope, time, cost, quality, and risk. It also serves a s an Ã¢â¬Å"offer and acceptanceÃ¢â¬ (Vermeessch Lindgren, 2005, p. 93) document between organisation and the customer. This report is prepared to critically analysis the neglected process in preparing Project Management Plan (PM Plan) during the life cycle of the project. The structure of the contract document is prepared in the form of subcontract agreement between the organisation and customer. This document covers four parts and there are, 1. The summary of the contract document summarising the major points of the contract document into a single page. 2. Part A establish general terms of conditions which are further, subdivide into definition of contract, compensation, subcontract period, payment terms and milestone, performance bond, warranty and warranty period, liabilities, risk mitigation, communication and health, safety and environmental (HSE). 3. Ã¢â¬ËPart BÃ¢â¬â¢ refers to scope of works and 4. Part CÃ¢â¬â¢ refers to compensation. Structure of this report is prepared base on the following, Introduction of the project review the reason of preparing the document and a brief summary of the contents. Background of project provide details of the project, reason, and context of the analysis. The nature of the venture discuss why this is a project, how does this affect the management. The audience of project management plan discusses who are the recipients, wh y they need it, what is required, and what way do they need it. Structure of the project plan discusses the flow of the PM Plan and follows with conclusion and recommendation. 2. Background of project This project is award to the organisation from existing customer located at the heart of Kuala Lumpur. The customer uses the organisation product and services in three of its building located at the same location a year ago. Recently when the building owner has a need to expand the existing security access system on one of the building in level two, the owner has specifically request the organisation and the project manger to quote and design for this need. This request is done due to the organisation familiarity with the site conditions, existing design of the security access system, expendability of the existing system, platform of the technology and the reliability of the services offered during the earlier phase of the project. Customer who also familiar on project contracting has presented the contract document in a structure that the contract document covers project scope, project period, project costing, project bill of quantity, project quality, and project risk. Each elements presented does fit the definition of a project. (Kerzner, 2003, p. ) Generally the development of PM Plan (PMI, 2004, p. 70) is required at this period but due to familiarity of running a project in the same nature and capacity, the project manager has not develop PM plan. This project is executed without a formal PM Plan (PMI, 2004, p. 70) through all its life cycle (Gardiner, 2005, p. 27) and the job is executed base on experience, procedures, and proces s previously establish by the organisation. This project is being monitor and control base on the establish process in terms of collection, billing, certification of jobs done, unbilled revenue and margin of the project. . 1. Nature of venture Base on various view of project definition that explains the terms project as per appendix 2, the venture has a nature of a project due to its unique, temporary, and progressive elaboration. (PMI, 2004, p. 5-6) Summing from appendix 2, project definition can be consider as Ã¢â¬Ëa temporary undertaking that contains a series of inter-related activities that are to be completed within a specific time, a specific budget and meeting specific performance levelsÃ¢â¬â¢ (Faisal A. 2006, p. 6). In this context, the project has the following criteria of temporary where the project period is from 14 April 2009 to 13 April 2010. It has inter related activities where the project manager will required to incorporate the five process and nine knowledge a rea at specific time, budget and performance in delivering the project as per the contract document even though there is no formal development of the PM Plan. In project management, the PMI define it Ã¢â¬Ëas application of knowledge, skill, tools, and techniques to project activities to meet project requirements. Project management is accomplished through the application and integration of the project management process of initiating, planning, executing, monitoring and controlling and closing. Ã¢â¬â¢ (PMI, 2004, p. 8) Reviewed in introduction, project background, and appendix 1, project management technique is a requirement for this organisation. Today the organisation did not practise formal project management technique (PM plan s not develop, information of the project is all over the place, from sales department, technical department, finance department, procurement department and project department) and this could be due to the culture or the way the project has being run. (Further elaboration in section 3. 2) Project management technique has the legitimate use in managing project due to the following: Project nature that requires continuous monitoring, review and updating during its project life cycle as illustrated in figure 3. 1. 1. Figure 3. 1. 1: The five phases and 25 action steps of project management life cycle Adapted from: USQ, 2009, p. 1. 16, Hamilton 1997) Ã¢â¬ËProject manager require to expand the scope of his/her vision as indicatedÃ¢â¬â¢ (USQ, 2009, p. 10. 22) in figure 3. 1. 2. Project manager need to manage its sponsor (customer), it also need to monitor and control the progress of the project and answer to its stakeholders. Project manager need to manage the human resources of the team members, external stakeholders such as the supplier, vendors and end user (user of the system) and all activities that have relationship to the project. Figure 3. 1. : The project leaders direction finder (Adapted from: USQ, 2009, p. 10. 23, Briner et al. 1996, p. 17) Project manager involve five-process grouping of define, planning, executing, monitoring, controlling, and closing (PMI, 2004, p. 70). It a lso involve nine knowledge area of project management integration, project scope management, project time management, project cost management, project quality management, project human resource management, project communication management, project risk management and project procurement management as illustrated figure 3. . 3. Ã¢â¬ËProject management integration has been defined by the AIPM (1996) as, the management of overall project scope in the context of schedule, budget, risk and contracts towards establishing agreed for supplier/client requirements. Integration involves the management of the other eight functions of project management, and making trade-offs among competing objectives and alternatives in order to meet or exceed project objectives throughout the project life cycle, taking into consideration the often conflicting influences of internal and external environmentÃ¢â¬â¢. USQ, 2009, p. 10. 18) Figure 3. 1. 3: Mapping of project management process to the project ma nagement process groups and knowledge areas (Adapted from: USQ, 2009, p. 1. 3, PMI 2004, Table 3-45) Project manager need to know the project management book of knowledge, project manager also need to know the general management of business in application areas knowledge, standard and regulation, understanding of project environment, and interpersonal skill as per figures 3. 1. 4. Figure 3. 1. 4: Areas of expertise needed by the project team Source: USQ, 2009, p. 11, PMI 2004, figure 1-2, p. 13) Project manager is surrounded by stakeholders (see figure 3. 1. 5) and hence the project manager would required this technique into managing his/her project . Figure 3. 1. 5: The project stakeholders (Source: USQ, 2009, p. 1. 22, Cleland, 1999, p. 167) Hence, the use of this management technique does provide beneficial to this project and is a Ã¢â¬Ëcritical success factorsÃ¢â¬â¢ (Gardiner Stewart, 2000, p. 201) and legitimate requirement for project managers. In this project, the only documentation use is a contract document and loose-files document from other functional units established at different time of the life cycle of the project. This contract document can only represent a project charter document and basic information of preliminary project scope statement where forty-two others areas of process and knowledge is not formally covered and documented or updated and recorder at one location. 3. 2. Nature and purpose of the chosen project management plan Appendix 1 is the document available for this project and this is the way the organisation has being executing project, as discuss earlier there is no other document created such as PM Plan in this project or any other project executed by the organisation. Contract document have some criteria of the components of project charter and project scope statement but did not encompass PM Plan. Figure 3. 2. 1 illustrate areas where and what document is available under the relationship of PM Plan. Figure 3. 2. 1: Three major project documents and their relationship to their components Adapted from: PMI, 2004, p. 75) The organisation do not have PM plan, because project manager normally do not just manage project. They also perform technical roles and probably due to their lake of experience as project manager, where majority of them are promoted from engineers and have limited specific training on project management. (Thornberry, 1987, p. 60) In some circumstances, the culture difficulty has prevented the use of project management techniques effectively compare to the western culture where the root of project management is from the western. Wang Liu, 2007, p. 61) As define in PMI 2004, PM Plan is a plan and documents generated by various process and those items are the subsidiary plan and components of PM Plan. PM Plan is a major document in a project and developing this document is a Ã¢â¬Ëcritical success factorsÃ¢â¬â¢. (Gardiner et al. , 2000, p. 201) It acts as a primary source of information of how the project goes through all the five projects management process in initiating, planning, executing, monitoring, controls, and closing of project. In USQ study book define PM Plan it Ã¢â¬Ëa critical document as it brings together all of the relevant information in one place, at a point in timeÃ¢â¬â¢. (USQ, 2009, p. 10. 24) Ã¢â¬ËThe plan often has multiple purpose including gaining sponsor signoff in many cases, it provide other key stakeholders (financiers, champions, steering committee members and project team members) with the essential information needed to fully understand the scope of the project, the risk, the schedule, the budget, etc and how it will be achievedÃ¢â¬â¢. (USQ, 2009, p. 10. 24) In this project, the developing of PM Plan is not available and this project runs base on loose subsidiary plan such as schedule generated for the purpose customer request, project costing for the purpose budgeting and tendering, project appraisal for the purpose of profit and margin. When it come to gaining sponsor signoff , providing stakeholders information, needs to understand the scope of project, risk, schedule, budget, it has being difficult and time consuming in accessing these information due to limited, no availability of information in one location. As for the purpose the Ã¢â¬ËPM Plan it act as a guide for implementing the project and documents assumptions and decisions regarding communication, management processes, execution, and overall project control. The ultimate purpose of the PM Plan, is to clearly define the roles, responsibilities, procedures, and processes that will result in the project being managed such that it is completed according to the baseline objectives and goalsÃ¢â¬â¢ (U. S. Department of Transport Federal Highway Administration, 2009) The PM Plan address all phases of the major project life cycle, and ensures that the project will be manages holistically and as a continuum, not incrementally as the project progresses. It is essential that the PM Plan establish the metrics by which the success of the project is defineÃ¢â¬â¢. (U. S. Department of Transport Federal Highway Administration, 2009) PM Plan can vary depending on the type and complexity of a project. The type and complexity of a project is as per figure 3. 2. 2 and the discuss project alls under the categories of engineering construction. Figure 3. 2. 2: Complexity-uncertainty relationships in projects (Adapted from: PMI, 2004, p. 9, Hamilton 1997, p. 68) If an audit is call on this project, many uncertainties and questions on the project are at risk and hence this put major risk to the project in terms of its set objectives and deliverables. Currently this project is not at the readiness stage and hence with this, immediate need in develop PM Plan is required. Figure 3. 2. , below are the input, tools, techniques, and output in developing the PM Plan and develop output of PM Plan will than incorporate as inputs of project integration, scope, time, cost, quality, human resource, communication, risk and project procurement management. Once the PM Plan is develop for this project, knowledge area at every phase of the process is plan and documented and this will be the primary source of information for the project team to r efer, monitor and control against their current progress goals and objectives. Figure 3. 2. 3: Develop PM Plan Input, Tools Techniques and Outputs (Source: PMI, 2004, p. 89) 3. 3. Audience of project management plan This organisation has no formal PM Plan. Main document use is the contract document and the subsidiary documents scatted around. The Project manager and its project team will use these contract document and subsidiary document to implement the project. Here is the table 3. 3. 1 to explain who use what information if a proper PM Plan is available. Base on the theory PMI 2004, Ã¢â¬ËPM Plan is critical document that have multiple purpose including updating and providing stakeholders with essential information needed to fully understand the scope of the project, the risk, the schedule, the budget and how it will be achieved. Ã¢â¬â¢ (USQ, 2009, p. 10. 24) Other theory such as Ã¢â¬ËPRINCE 2 (PRojects IN Controlled Environments) is the de facto standard in the UK. It was developed for and is used extensively by the UK government, and is widely used in the private sector, in the UK and internationally. PRINCE2 components and processes are consistent with the PMBOK, but PRINCE2 does not include all the knowledge areas and details specified in the PMBOK. PRINCE2 focuses on critical areas, so a project manager still needs to draw on the full depth and range of the PMBOK and other sources to complete project management work. The intention of PRINCE2 is to organize and supplement project management knowledge. It assumes that those learning and working with this methodology have a level of experience that enables them to fill in the details that PRINCE2 omits. (Siegelaub, 2004, p. 1) Refer also to appendix 3 on how PRINCE 2 can complement PMBOK, appendix 4 for comparison between PRINCE 2 and PMBOK and appendix 5 for the PRINCE 2 model and these are sources downloaded from , viewed 21 May 2009. Table 3. 3. 1: Audience of PM Plan Audiences (Who)Why this audiencesWhat do they need to knowHow will they use the planWhat info needs to be providedHow should that info be providedIn what sequence Sponsor CustomerSponsor of the projectAll the nine knowledge areasIn all of the five process groupSelective knowledge and process group areas. In project mgmt planAs per PMI, 2004 project mgmt process, p70 Internal Stakeholders General managersInternal sponsor of the projectAll the nine knowledge areasIn all of the five process groupAll knowledge and process group areas. In project mgmt planAs per PMI, 2004 project mgmt process, p70 Functional managerse. g. Finance Manager need to report the project as statutory requirementKnowledge directly link to their functions. e. g. Finance Ã¢â¬â cost mgmtIn four of the process group of planning, executing, monitor control and closureSelective knowledge and process group areas. In project mgmt planAs per PMI, 2004 project mgmt process, p70 Project teamsTo plan, execute, monitor control and closure of projectKnowledge areas directly link to their work packagesIn selective process group related to their work packageSelective knowledge and process group areas. In project mgmt planAs per PMI, 2004 project mgmt process, p70 Project managerTo define, plan, execute, monitoring control and closure of projectAll the nine knowledge areasIn all of the five process groupAll knowledge and process group areas. In project mgmt planAs per PMI, 2004 project mgmt process, p70 AdministratorsTo support the projectKnowledge areas directly link to their work packagesSelective process group related to their work packageSelective knowledge and process group areas. In project mgmt planAs per PMI, 2004 project mgmt process, p70 External Stakeholders Customer-usersTo use the productsScope, Cost, Time, Quality mgmtInitiating and closure process groupSelective knowledge and process group areas. In project mgmt planAs per PMI, 2004 project mgmt process, p70 Supplier/ContractorsTo supply and install this product according to set goals and objectives. Knowledge areas directly link to their work packagesSelective process group related to their work packageSelective knowledge and process group areas. In project mgmt planAs per PMI, 2004 project mgmt process, p70 3. 4. Structure of the project plan Structure of the document used by the project manager in this project is not near or close to a PM Plan. As discuss there is no development or formal PM Plan use by the project manager. The information uses to execute the project are from the contract document and some scatted document. Attach are the table 3. 4. to explain what is used base on the comparison of a PM Plan formats. In summary the organisation do not have an PM Plan and the way it execute it project is based on experience and scatter document during the proposal stage, develop for the purpose of budgeting. The only Ã¢â¬ËstrongÃ¢â¬â¢ document is a charter and scoping document establish from the contract document. Other component such as scope, time and cost has being incl uded are document made available during initiating state when performing budgetary activities. Components such as human resource, procurement, quality, and risk are tandard process document from the organisation. Table 3. 4. 1: PM Plan structures and its components PMBOKPRINCE2ChapmanÃ¢â¬â¢sThis OrganisationWhy this component is includedIssues with the organisation information Project CharterXXXXAs a contract Using contract document as project charter Project Scope StatementXXXXAs a contract Using contract document as scope management Project Integration ManagementXXXOONo development of this document Project Scope ManagementXXXXAvailable during proposal stage for budget purposeDone during define phase. No further updates in planning, execution, monitoring control and closure. Project Cost ManagementXXXXAvailable during proposal stage for budget purposeDone during define phase. No further updates in planning, execution, monitoring control and closure. Project Time ManagementXXXXAvailable during proposal stage for budget purposeDone during define phase. No further updates in planning, execution, monitoring control and closure. Project Quality ManagementXXXXEstablish process in the organisationNo updates in defining, planning, execution, monitoring control and closure. Project Human Resource ManagementXXXXEstablish organisation structure as project running company. No updates in defining, planning, execution, monitoring control and closure. Project Communication ManagementXXXOONo development of this document Project Risk ManagementXXXXEstablish process in the organisationNo updates in defining, planning, execution, monitoring control and closure. Project Procurement ManagementXOXXEstablish process in the organisationNo updates in defining, planning, execution, monitoring control and closure. Multi-project OversightOOXOONo development of this document Legend: XPractice/Available ONot Practice/Not Available 4. Contents of the Project Plan Sections This organisation has no PM Plan and due to the critical success factors for a project, PM Plan development is required. Here we will discuss each major section of the project plan and some theoretical framework of what is included. PM Plan is a living document that Ã¢â¬Ëbrings together all of the relevant information in one place, at a point of timeÃ¢â¬â¢. (USQ, 2009, p. 10. 24) Define in PMI 2004, development of PM Plan Ã¢â¬Ëprocess includes action necessary to define, integrate, and coordinate all subsidiary plans into a PM Plan. This process result in a PM Plan that is updated and revised through the Integrated Change Control process. PM Plan defines how project is executed, monitored and controlled, and closed. The PM Plan documents the collection of outputs of the planning process of the Planning Process GroupÃ¢â¬â¢. (PMI, 2004, p. 88) Ã¢â¬ËThe PM Plan can be either summary level or detailed, and can be composed of one or more subsidiary plans and other components. Each of the subsidiary plans and components is as detail to the extent required by the specific project. Ã¢â¬â¢ (PMI, 2004, p. 87-9) Development of PM Plan can further be summarise per the figure 4. 1 and further discussion on each of the major component is elaborate below. Figure 4. 1: Develop PM Plan with its input, tools and technique and output process. (Adapted from: PMI, 2004, p. 77-90) 4. 1. Develop inputs of PM Plan Inputs of PM Plan consist of four majors components and they are, 4. 1. 1Preliminary Project Scope Management Ã¢â¬ËDefines what needs to be accomplished. The develop preliminary project scope statement process addresses and documents the characteristics and boundaries of the project and its associated products and services, as well s the methods of acceptance and scope control. Ã¢â¬â¢ (PMI, 2004, p. 86) Ã¢â¬ËThis will contain, among other things, a record of the project objectives and project deliverables and an outline of the costs, timing and specifications of the work to be done. Ã¢â¬â¢ (Lake, 1997, p. 104) Project manager gathers this information from contract document in appendix 1 for the project stakeholders as explain in section 3. 3. 4. 1. 2Project Management Processes All nine knowledge areas of PMI 2004, PMBOKÃ ® Guide. These areas includes the integration management and the following, 4. 1. 2. 1Project Scope Management Includes the processes required to ensure that the project includes all the work required, to complete the project successfully. Project scope management is primarily concerned with defining and controlling what is and is not included in the project. Ã¢â¬â¢ (PMI, 2004, p. 103) Ã¢â¬ËWBS is a method of breaking down a project into individual elements which can be scheduled and costed. WBS is a method of splitting a project up into small parts for which you can predict the resource requirements and which you can build into a schedule. The first step in constructing a WBS is to identify the main stages of the project. These may correspond to the phases in the project life cycle:Ã¢â¬â¢ (Lake, 1997, p. 72-3) Ã¢â¬Ëonce the main stages of the project have been established, the second step in developing a WBS is to divide each stage into smaller elements. Some project managers insist that each element should relate specifically to a particular project deliverable. This approach has significant advantages, because it focuses attention on the agreed scope of the project and ensures that resources are not waste on anything, which lies outside it. It is also much easier to check that each stage in the project has actually finished. (Lake, 1997, p. 73-4) This can further illustrate in figure 4. 2. Figure 4. 2 : WBS sample structure (Adapted from: PMI, 2004, p. 114) 4. 1. 2. 2Project Time Management Ã¢â¬ËIncludes the process required to accomplish timely completion of the project. Ã¢â¬â¢ (PMI, 2004, p. 123) Ã¢â¬ËA network is a diagram, which shows the dependencies between the activities in a projec t. It is use to schedule these activities and plan the optimum use of resources. Ã¢â¬â¢ (Lake, 1997, p. 80) Here is example of a network diagram as per figure 4. 3 Figure 4. 3 : Network Diagram (Source: Taylor, 2009) In time management, monitoring the time of completion base on jobs done is meaningless. Instead, a more reliable ways to monitor jobs completion is through the numbers percentage jobs should be done. e. g. Ã¢â¬ËIf it is going to take 20 person days and 12 person days are already gone, it means that 60% of work should be doneÃ¢â¬â¢. (Dash, 2009) another way is the Earned Value Measurement (EVM) technique. Ã¢â¬ËTo know the status of the project, just a couple of question needs to be asked: 1. What is the SPI (Schedule Performance Index) for the project? 2. What is the CPI (Cost Performance Index) for the project? If SPI and CPI are below 1. 0, then the project is not in good health, i. e. , not performing well. Also from a schedule perspective, if the SPI is below 1. 0 (let us assume it is 0. 9), then it means the deliverable is actually 90% complete and it is behind schedule. Ã¢â¬â¢ (Dash, 2009) 4. 1. 2. 3Project Cost Management Includes the processes involved in planning, estimating, budgeting, and controlling costs so that the project can be completed within the approved budget. Ã¢â¬â¢ (PMI, 2004, p. 157) Ã¢â¬ËMicrosoft Project help describes Earned Value analysis as Ã¢â¬Å"a method for measuring project performance. It indicates how much of the budget should have been spent in relation to the amount of work done so far and the baseline costs for the tasks, assignments, or resources. At the root of Earned Value analysis are three key values:Ã¢â¬â¢ (Almeida, 2009) 4. 1. 2. 3. 1. Ã¢â¬ËThe budgeted cost of individual tasks as they are scheduled in the project plan based on the costs of resources assigned to those tasks plus any fixed costs associated with the tasks. This is the budgeted cost of work scheduled (BCWS). BCWS is the baseline cost up to the status date you choose. Budgeted cost values are stored in the baseline fields, or, if you have saved multiple baselines, in Baseline1 through Baseline10 fields. Ã¢â¬â¢ (Almeida, 2009) 4. 1. 2. 3. 2. Ã¢â¬ËThe actual cost required to complete all or some portion of the tasks up to the status date. This is the actual cost of work performed (ACWP). Normally, Microsoft Project correlates actual costs with actual work. Only if you enter actual costs independent of actual work or change resource pay rates will the actual cost be out of step with the scheduled cost. Ã¢â¬â¢ (Almeida, 2009) 4. 1. 2. 3. 3. The value of the work performed by the status date measured in currency. This is literally the value earned by the work performed, and is called the budgeted cost of work performed (BCWP). This value is calculated for each individual task, but is analysed at an aggregate level (typically at the project level). Ã¢â¬â¢ (Almeida, 2009) Ã¢â¬ËEarned Value analysis is always specific to a status date you choose . This may be the current date or any date before the current date. Microsoft Project gives us out-of-the-box AC, PV, EV, CV, SV, SPI, and CPI, among others. However, the key to using Earned Value is the way we interpret the values. So when EV0 and PV=0 what should be the result of SPI? For anomalous situations, SPI calculated by Microsoft Project is always 0. This will make the analysis of eventual insertion errors difficult. If PV EV 0 and PV = Task Baseline Cost (this means that the task in the initial plan should be finished but due to a delay is still progressing), what should be the result of SPI? For Microsoft Project, it is EV / PV, but in this case we have a task that is recovering and PV will stay constant with an increasing EV, so SPI is going to improve until the task is finished. This will present us with some misinterpretations since at this time it is better to have SPI with a value that enables us to identify recovering tasks. Ã¢â¬â¢ (Almeida, 2009) 4. 1. 2. 4Project Quality Management Ã¢â¬ËPocesses include all the activities of the performing organization that determine quality policies, objectives, and responsibilities so that the project will satisfy the needs for which it was undertaken. It implements the quality management system through the policy, procedures, and processes of quality planning, quality assurance, and quality control, with continuous process improvement activities conducted throughout, as appropriate. (PMI, 2004, p. 179) ISO10006:2003 guideline to quality management in project ( bia. ca/articles/pj-combining-iso-10006-pmbok-to-ensure-successful-projects. htm, 2009) can be applied in this project. 4. 1. 2. 5Project Human Resource Management Ã¢â¬ËIncludes the processes that organize and manage the project team. The project team is comprised of the people who have assigned roles and responsibilities for completing the project. Ã¢â¬â¢ (PMI, 2004, p. 199) 4. 1. 2. 6Project Communications Management As define in PMI, 2004, p. 221. Is the knowledge area that employs the processes required to ensure timely and appropriate generation, collection, distribution, storage, retrieval, and ultimate disposition of project information. The Project Communications Management processes provide the critical links among people and information that are necessary for successful communications. 4. 1. 2. 7Project Risk Management As define in PMI, 2004, p. 237. Includes the processes concerned with conducting risk management planning, identification, analysis, responses, and monitoring and control on a project; most of these processes are updated throughout the project. The objectives of Project Risk Management are to increase the probability and impact of positive events, and decrease the probability and impact of events adverse to the project. 4. 1. 2. 8Project Procurement Management As define in PMI, 2004, p. 269. Includes the processes to purchase or acquire the products, services, or results needed from outside the project team to perform the work. Project Procurement Management includes the contract management and change control processes required to administer contracts or purchase orders issued by authorized project team members. Project Procurement Management also includes administering any contract issued by an outside organization (the buyer) that is acquiring the project from the performing organization (the seller), and administering contractual obligations placed on the project team by the contract. 4. 1. 3Enterprise Environment Factors Ã¢â¬ËDefines any and all of the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s enterprise environmental factors and systems that surround and influence the projectÃ¢â¬â¢s success must be considered. Ã¢â¬â¢ (PMI, 2004, p. 83) 4. 1. 4Organizational Process Assets Defines in PMI, 2004, p. 84 All of the assets that are used to influence the projectÃ¢â¬â¢s success can be drawn from organizational process assets. Any and all of the organizations involved in the project can have formal and informal policies, procedures, plans, and guidelines whose effects must be considered. Organizational process assets also represent the organizationsÃ¢â¬â¢ learning and knowledge from previous projects; for example, completed schedules, risk data, and earned value data. Organizational process assets can be organized differently, depending on the type of industry, organization, and application area. 4. 2. Tools and Technique of PM Plan PM Plan consist of three major components and they are, 4. 2. 1Project Management Methodology Ã¢â¬ËDefines a process that aids a project management team in developing and controlling changes to the preliminary project scope statement. Ã¢â¬â¢ (PMI, 2004, p. 87) 4. 2. 2Project Management Information System Ã¢â¬ËDefines an automated system, is used by the project management team to support generation of a preliminary project scope statement, facilitate feedback, as the document is refined, control changes to the project scope statement, and release the approved document. (PMI, 2004, p. 88) 4. 2. 3Expert Judgment Ã¢â¬ËIs applied to any technical and management details to be included in the preliminary project scope statement. Ã¢â¬â¢ (PMI, 2004, p. 88) 4. 3. Output of a PM Plan Ideally the output of a PM Plan are all the collected information above and base the scenario of the project the PM Plan can be presented in the ways where it Ã¢â¬Ëmay be recorded in project software, or at minimum presented as a loose-leaf files of documentsÃ¢â¬â¢ (Lake, 1997, p. 104-5) 5. Conclusions Summarise from the discussion above, development of PM Plan is critical success factors in running a project. PM Plan is a primary source of information of how the project goes through all the five projects management process in defining, planning, executing, monitoring, controls, and closing of project and all the nine areas of project management book of knowledge (PMBOKÃ ® Guide). PM Plan is a document that tells its audience where they are and where they are heading and this document have eight knowledge areas that are important and these information required to be used as integrated document between the knowledge areas. Inputs, tools, techniques are a structure how PM Plan is develop. Inputs of PM Plan consist of four major elements, the preliminary scope statement of a project, the project management of process of PMBOKÃ ® Guide, the environmental of the enterprise, and the organisation process assets. With these combinations of information and with the tools and techniques in methodology of controlling and defining the inputs, project management information system, and expert judgement contributes to a PM Plan. As describe by Bourne, 2009, The PMBOKÃ ® Guide is a knowledge framework that contains processes that are generally applicable to most projects, most of the time. The consequence of this is the processes need tailoring for specific projects. The PMBOKÃ ® Guide is developed by hundreds of project managers from around the world and the result is a coordinated amalgam of ideas. PMI has aspirations for the profession of project management. Some underlying themes found in the majority of questions such as the high level of proficiency of the performing organisation and the professional competence of the project managers may be a stretch based on the culture of your organisation but are highly desirable aims and are not unrealistic. This does not devalue the way you do your projects. As long as the projects manages are constantly delivered on time, on budget, on scope and fully satisfying all of the key stakeholders. If this happens, the approach to project management is obviously right in the context you are working in. It is just your way is different to the generally accepted way most successful projects are delivered worldwide. 6. Recommendations As an organisation, that runs project a PM Plan is a minimum requirement in all project management. PMBOK, PRINCE2 are some of the easily available book of knowledge the project manager should get familiar when planning and executing a project. PM Plan undertakes by the project manager should tailor according to the complexity of the project and other consideration concerning the project environment and organisation process assets are some of the consideration when developing a PM Plan. Hence with these considerations probably not all of the eight knowledge areas in PMI 2004, PMBOK or seven knowledge areas in PRINCE 2 knowledge will be define, plan, execute, monitor control and closed. In this context at least four of the major project management process that require immediate attention and further improvement are on scope statement and scope management plan. Where this scope statement provides a common understanding to the project stakeholders and scope planning detail how the scope will be control, manage, and define. On time management the planning of schedule alone without analysing the activities and WBS need immediate changes. Activities definition, duration estimation, activity sequencing, critical path, network planning, and milestone are required in this process. In cost management, probably this is the most comprehensive process conducted by the organisation but further enhancement on the EVM , IRR and NPV may need to be incorporated for decision making during for the whole duration of the project life cycle. Finally are on the human resource management in the context of work force planning. Ã¢â¬ËWorkforce planning is an iterative discipline. The cycle of workforce planning includes filling resource requests, analysing utilization, forecasting capacity, managing and identifying the people to fill that capacity, and then starting the cycle again. Ã¢â¬â¢ (Melik, 2008
Wednesday, February 19, 2020
Write an interesting scientific on delayed suprachoroidal haemorrhage following cyclodiode laser therapy - Article Example It is highly successful in providing pain relief in painful blind hypertensive glaucomatous eyes (Martin 2001). It is also useful to bring down intra ocular pressures in pregnancy where use of topical ocular hypotensive agents are contraindicated (Wertheim 2002). A longer follow up by Walland and Mark (2000) has suggested that cyclophotocoagulation is a convenient and useful therapy in the control of IOP in end-stage glaucoma. Like any other laser surgery, cyclodiode therapy also has side effects, but the complications are minimal when compared to other forms of treatment (Bloom 1997). Mild complications include iritis and other inflammations of the eye which can last several weeks. This can be of concern because multiple applications may be needed for a patient (Bloom 1997). Rarely, severe complications like phthisis bulbi (Sabri 1999), panophthalmitis (Sii 2007), sympathetic ophthalmia, malignant glaucoma (Fankhauser, 2004), necrotizing scleritis (Sudha 2006), choroidal detachment and retinal detachment (Autrata 2003) can also occur. Sabri and Vernon have reported a case of scleral perforation following diode surgery (Sabri 1999) while Tay and others (2006) have described about supra choroidal haemorrhage (late complication). In neovascular glaucoma, response of intra ocular pressure to the laser therapy is highly variable and hence circumferential treatments in neovascular eyes should be avoided (Walla nd, 2000). Suprachoroidal haemorrhage (SCH) is a catastrophic complication of intraocular surgery. The bleeding is usually due to the rupture of the long posterior ciliary artery (Wolter 1982). It can cause immediate loss of vision or loss of the eye (Sharma, YR, 2003). It has been associated with cataract surgery, penetrating keratoplasty, glaucoma procedures, vitreoretinal surgery (Tay 2006) and secondary lens implantation (Reynolds 1993). The haemorrhage can occur during surgery (intra-operative) or post-operative (delayed).